"It's time to talk, finding a way out of the impasse, working within the constitutional order of Spain", European Commission vice-president Frans Timmermans told an emergency debate in the European Parliament.
Catalanonia's president Carles Puigdemont called for global mediation in resolving his parliament's independence dispute with Spain following a violent crackdown by Spanish authorities during the Catalan independence referendum.
The head of the biggest political group in the parliament, Manfred Weber - a Rajoy ally - said he was "very sorry for all those who were hurt", Catalan citizens and police alike, but warned that demonstrations can not replace democratic processes.
Felipe said the referendum's organisers showed "disrespect to the powers of the state", but made no mention of Sunday's violence.
Worldwide ratings agencies have given Catalonia a low, "speculative" credit rating, meaning it has difficulty borrowing directly on financial markets and must depend on loans from the Spain's central government.
He then underlined "the crown's unswerving commitment to the Spanish constitution and to the unity of Spain".
Paula Miranda, a university student, said, "I felt lots of impotence and rage".
Just as Madrid will not recognise the results of a referendum both it and the courts have declared illegal, so it will not recognise an independence declaration.
Before the vote, polls indicated that a minority of around 40 percent of the region's total 7.5 million Catalans supported independence, but many opposed to the referendum did not participate.
Protesters who want Catalonia to separate from Spain march during a demonstration Monday in Barcelona. He's also addressing the regional parliament Monday to review the dispute vote - a session that his parliamentary supporters in the radical, anti-capitalist CUP group say will consider the independence declaration. "Today, Catalan society is fractured and in conflict", he said.
Spain has been rocked by the Catalan vote and the Spanish police response to it, which saw batons and rubber bullets used to prevent people voting. Already, leading Catalan independence figures have been arrested and charged with sedition.
He said Germany wasn't seeking to mediate in the dispute between Madrid and the regional government in Barcelona.
Most European governments haven't backed Catalonia's independence, fearing the same thing could happen in other nations.
Catalonia's leader Carles Puigdemont said the region had won the right to break away from Spain after 90 percent of voters taking part in a banned referendum voted for independence, defying a sometimes violent police crackdown and fierce opposition from Madrid.